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传阅:改革科举如此艰难

姜鸣

李鸿章建议增设新科取士

科举是中国古代的官员选拔制度,创始于隋朝。它打破了更早年代通行的血缘世袭和官僚举荐(察举制和九品中正制),为社会中下层读书人提供了相对公平的入仕通道,在世界上曾是一种先进的选官体系,也对后来欧美国家实施文官制度起过重要的借鉴参考。

科举考试的内容是儒家经典。明代以后,采用八股文体来阐发经义,格式日益僵化,文章日益空虚,既与现实生活无关,更与科学进步无关,完全自成套路和技巧。在近代,随着西方科学技术在中国传播,对八股取士落伍保守的批评不绝如缕,兴办新式学堂的实践也逐步推进。二十世纪初,终于结束了绵延长达一千三百年的科举取士制度。 Read more…