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Archive for October 24th, 2018

24 October



今天讲的题目是”后发劣势”,这个题目也许不太适合很多人的口味,因为现在国内都在讲”后发优势”。我讲的后发劣势在西方研究的人也不多,有一位过世的经经济学家叫沃森,他在财政联邦主义、政治经济学等领域很有建树,”后发劣势”概念就是他提出来的。他提出的英文名称叫”Curse To The Late Comer”,就是”对后来者的诅咒”。他的意思就是说,落后国家由于发展比较迟,所以有很多东西可以模仿发达国家。模仿有两种形式,一种是模仿制度,另一种是模仿技术和工业化的模式。由于是后发国家,所以可以在没有在基础制度的情况下通过技术模仿实现快速发展。为什麽说”诅咒”呢?就是说落后国家由于模仿的空间很大,所以可以在没有好的制度的条件下,通过对发达国家技术和管理模式的模仿,取得发达国家必须在一定制度下才能取得的成就。特别是落后国家模仿技术比较容易,模仿制度比较困难,因为要改革制度会触犯一些既得利益,因此落后国家会倾向于技术模仿。但是,这样做的落后国家虽然可以在短期内取得非常好的发展,但是会给长期的发展留下许多隐患,甚至长期发展可能失败。 Read more…